The virtues of Jumu'ah, Friday prayer:
Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. [On Friday] Adam was created and on that day he entered paradise and on that day he was expelled from paradise. And the Hour will come to pass on Friday." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmidhi who calls it sahih.
Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet said: "The most prominent of the days [lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the most honored in Allah's sight, and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the day of breaking the fast or the day of sacrifice. It has five significant merits: Allah created Adam on this day; on this day Allah sent Adam down to the earth; on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; on this day, there is a time during which if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted to him unless he asks for something which is forbidden; and on this day, the Hour will be established. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind or mountain or sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is hasan.
Supplications during Friday:
One should do one's best to make supplications during the last moments (or hours) of Jumu'ah. 'Abdullah ibn Salam relates: "I said, and the Messenger of Allah was sitting: 'We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an 'hour' in which, if a believing slave prays to Allah for something, his prayer is (indeed) accepted and he is granted what ever he prays for.' The Messenger of Allah pointed toward me and said: 'Or part of an hour.' I said: 'You have spoken the truth: or part of an hour.' I asked: 'What hour is it?' He replied: 'The last hour of the day.' I remarked: 'That is not a time of salah?' He responded: 'Certainly [it is]; if a believing slave offers salah and then sits, he will not be sitting, save due to the salah, and he will be in salah."' This is related by Ibn Majah.
Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah said: "On Jumu'ah there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for some good, [Allah will definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'asr salah." This is related by Ahmad. Al-'Iraqi calls it sahih.
Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah has twelve hours, and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [of Allah] asking Allah for something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it in the last hour after the 'Asr salah." This is related by anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls it sahih according to Muslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.
Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman reports that some companions of the Prophet gathered and mentioned the "hour on Jumu'ah." They left and did not differ on the fact that it is the last hour of Jumu'ah. This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar calls it sahih.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in which the supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asr prayer, and some state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."
There is a hadith recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud which states that Abu Musa heard the Messenger of Allah say concerning the special hour on Jumu'ah: "It is between the time that the imam sits [i.e., upon the pulpit] and the time that the salah is completed." All the same, this particular hadith is defective because its chain is broken and it is mudtarib.
Making many prayers and salutations upon the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during the night and the day of Jumu'ah:
Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." This is related by the five, except for at-Tirmidhi.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in this life and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good of this life and the next life for this ummah, and the greatest honor and success will be granted to them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their houses and palaces in paradise and that is the day they will be given more when they enter paradise. It is a day of celebration for them in this life. It is also a day in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their prayers and requests in this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it because of the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings]; therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we received through him, we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night of Jumu 'ah."
Recitation of Surah al-Kahf:
It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day and night of Jumu'ah. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next." This is related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and alHakim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feet to the peak of the sky. This will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven for what is between the Jumu'ah [and the next] Jumu'ah." This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with a faultless chain.
It is disliked to raise one's voice while reciting al-Kahf in the mosque on Friday:
Shaikh Muhammad 'Abdu issued a verdict that mentioned reciting Surah al-Kahf aloud among the many disliked matters on Friday. He also mentioned the following: singling out Friday as a day of fasting, singling out its night as a night to perform salatul tahajjud, reciting Surah al-Kahf during it with a specific manner of melody which disturbs those who are offering salah, while the people in the mosque are not listening because of their being engaged in conversation with others. Therefore, one should be careful about such a recital.
Performing ghusl, beautifying one's self, using the miswak, and using perfume for any gathering and especially for Salatul Jumu'ah:
It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:
Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim. Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes." This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say: "And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfold reward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who has not committed major sins."
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.
Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.
Going early to Salatul Jumu'ah:
It is preferred for one to go early to the salatul Jumu'ah, unless he is the imam. 'Alqamah says: "I went with 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to the mosque and we found that three people had arrived there before us. [Ibn Mas'ud] said: 'The fourth of four, and the fourth of four is not far from Allah, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: "The people will be seated on the day of resurrection according to how they came to the salatul Jumu'ah: the first, then the second, then the third, then the fourth and the fourth of four is not far from Allah."' This is related by Ibn Majah and al-Mundhiri.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever makes ghusl on Jumu'ah like the ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to the mosque, it will be as if he had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during the second hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a cow. If he goes during the third hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If he goes during the fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goes during the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) an egg. When the imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to the rememberance." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Ash-Shaf'i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the "hours" refer to the hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred for the people to start attending the mosque right after dawn. Malik is of the opinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian. Ibn Rushd says: "That is the most apparent meaning as going [to the mosque] after the sun passes the meridian is obligatory."
Stepping over others' necks in the mosque:
At-Tirmidhi reports that the people of knowledge dislike that one should "step over the necks of the people" on Jumu'ah and they were very strict in this regard. 'Abdullah ibn Busr says: "A man came and he was stepping over the necks of the people while the Prophet was delivering khutbah of Jumu'ah. He said to him: 'Sit down. You have harmed the people and have come late."' This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaimah, and others call it sahih.
This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening and cannot reach it, save by going over the people. If one wants to return to his place after leaving it due to some necessity, he may do so on the condition that he does not harm the people. 'Uqbah ibn al-Harith relates: "I prayed the 'asr in Medinah behind the Prophet and then he stood and hurried off, stepping over the people, to go to some of the apartments of his wives. The people were afraid because of his rushing away in this manner. When he came out and found them amazed at leaving them in such a hurry, he said: 'I remembered some gold that was in my possession and I hated that it should remain with me, so I ordered it to be distributed."' This is related by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i.
Nawafl before salatul Jumu'ah:
It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until the imam arrives. After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to perform tahayyatul masjid.
Ibn 'Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu'ah and then two rak'at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related by Abu Dawud.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu'ah and the next and an additional three days." This is related by Muslim.
Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: "Did you offer the salah?" The man replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray two rak'at." This is related by the group. In one narration it states: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak'at." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Feeling drowsy while in the mosque:
It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true for Fridays and any other day. Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another place." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmidhi who calls it hasan sahih.
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